Paraphrasing in essay writing

It is not a failing of the author when one of the characters acts in an unusually audacious way. There are many examples in real life as well as fiction of a normally cautious person finding themselves enjoying an adventure. You do not need to place technical terms or specialised vocabulary in quotation marks if you use them as a part of a paraphrase or summary in your assignment. Generally, the quote should be preceded by a colon.

Check the referencing style guide for your unit. Kotler comments on the tendency of many Americans to assume that everything in the United States is better than elsewhere:.

Quoting and Paraphrasing – The Writing Center – UW–Madison

A nation that is great does not need to boast about it! It will be known without promotion. Many Europeans, especially the French, feel their lives are more satisfying Kotler, , p. A similar attitude prevails in Australia and can be discerned in discussions about immigration. Many commentators take it for granted that everyone would prefer to live here. Never end a paragraph with a block quote. You should always explain how the quote fits into your argument.

Each of these four attempts at quoting has an error. Drag the error the writer has made on the right hand side and match it to the quote on the left. Look at the following examples of long quotes.

Indicate whether the quote has been used appropriately. Hint: This activity requires you to consider more than just the formatting of the quote. Information-prominent citation is used when what i. In this case the citation follows the content. For example:. Author-prominent citation is used when the primary importance is given to who i.

In this case the author is usually mentioned in the subject of the sentence. Instances when author-prominent citation are useful include:. So far we have discussed three methods of presenting or referring to the work of others in your assignments: paraphrasing, summarising and quoting. In any assignment you will most likely use a mix of these techniques to convey what you have read.

However, there are other considerations which will affect the way you present this information:. Look at the example below.

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The purpose of the paragraph is to introduce the concept of homelessness and lead into a discussion of policy development and service provision. Note how the writer has incorporated materials from several sources. Homelessness can be defined in a number of ways. These extend from the want of shelter ABS, , which may or may not include temporary shelter such as couchsurfing and crisis accommodation Mission Australia, , to a lack of permanency, membership of a family or social unit, or sense of historical belonging OUP, The difficulty of agreeing on a definition is reflected in the complexity involved in developing effective policies and services for those deemed to be homeless ABS, Now read the version below.

A multi-faceted concept, it can be defined in a variety of ways, most simply as merely the want of shelter ABS, , including or not including those who are couch surfing or in crisis accommodation Mission Australia These additional elements reflect the influence of cultural and historical factors on our understanding of what constitutes a home ABS, and, by extension, what is lost when one becomes homeless.

Austen, J. London: Promotional Reprint Company. Australian Bureau of Statistics. A Statistical Definition of Homelessness No. Chomsky, N. Language and mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fayet-Moore, F.

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Identifying eating occasion based opportunities to improve the overall diets of Australian adolescents, Nutrients, 9 6 , Kahu, E. Increasing the emotional engagement of first year mature-aged distance students: Interest and belonging.

How to Use a Rephrasing Tool to Avoid Committing Plagiarism

Kotler, P. Democracy in decline: rebuilding its future. Loveland, OH: Sage Publications. McHardy, J. Mission Australia. What is homelessness? Scholte, J. Defining Globalisation. World Economy, 31 11 , — Skip to content Skip to navigation. Plagiarism, collusion and contract cheating Putting academic integrity into practice Reference list Further resources Citing and referencing About citing and referencing What and when to cite and reference How to cite and reference Test your understanding Reference list Guide to referencing styles. Introduction In your assignments you will be expected to draw on the writing of experts in your field of study to demonstrate your understanding of key concepts, ideas and debates.

The tutorial will cover: Making notes for assignments Paraphrasing Summarising Quoting Information-prominent or Author-prominent citation Putting it all together. Making notes for assignments Although it can be tempting to copy chunks word-for-word from a text when making notes for an assignment, you should avoid this for three reasons: it can increase the risk of accidental plagiarism it can mask the fact that you do not fully understand what you have read it is a passive technique and does not help you to learn. Tip Rewording some technical terms or specialised vocabulary e.

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Record bibliographic details of the source Record the bibliographic details of the source e. Hint When you can express the key information presented in the original text in your own words briefly, you are ready to make paraphrased notes. Hint Not looking at the original text while making notes will assist you to take notes in your own words and avoid plagiarism. Hint Put your own thoughts, ideas and questions in a different colour or font so they are easily distinguishable from the ideas of the researcher that you have recorded.

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NYC, , p. Parity, 25 9 : National Youth Commission. Hint When planning and writing your assignment, use only your own notes which are written in your own words. Activity Are the following statements about note making true or false? Paraphrasing Paraphrasing means expressing information or ideas from other sources in your own words in a similar number of words as the source text.

Tip A paraphrase is particularly useful: when you are dealing with facts and definitions when you need to refer to a chunk of information from one particular part of a source e. Here is how to paraphrase: The first step in paraphrasing is to read the original text and get a full grasp of it.

You may need to read the original text a few times and check the meaning of key words to fully understand it.

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After each paragraph or section, put the reading aside and state it in your own words. When you can do this, you are ready to write your paraphrase. Finally, proofread, revise and edit your paraphrase as necessary. Activity The paragraph below is a paraphrase written by a student. Activity Below is an extract from a text which a student intends to use in an assignment, followed by two attempts at paraphrasing it.

Assignment topic It is generally agreed that homelessness is increasing in Australia, yet there is no commonly accepted definition. Original text: Because of the complexity of homelessness from a social policy and service delivery perspective, there are a wide range of views on what constitutes homelessness.

Here is how to summarise: Similar to paraphrasing, the first step in summarising is to read the original text and get a full grasp of it. You may need to re-read the original source a few times and look up the meaning of key words to fully understand it. When reading, ask yourself: What is the overall message? What are the key points?